Study on the psychometric characteristics of Child Abuse Self Report Scale

Document Type: Original Article


1 Department of PsychologyT Islamic Azad University, Tehran Markaz branch

2 Department of clinical psychology، Islamic Azad University, Tehran Markaz branch

3 Department of clinical psychology, alame tabatabae University


This research aimed to determine the psychometric characteristics (validity and reliability) of the child abuse self-report scale in a sample of 11-16 year-old children in Tehran. This is an applied, descriptive and correlation research, and the statistical population consisted of Tehranian abused students who are 11-16 years old, out of which, 400 subjects were selected through convenient sampling as the sample. The data was obtained by Persian translation of a child abuse self-report scale (Kent and Waller, 1998). The collected data was analyzed using the SPSS 24, factor, and lisrel software. The results of exploratory factor analysis by major axes analysis method and Promax rotation implied the existence of four significant factors. After removing two inappropriate questions, the fit indices of the confirmatory factor analysis model suggested good fitting of the model and construct validity of the instrument. The value of Cronbach alpha and Guttman's lambda-2 obtained were higher than 0.76, for all the subscales and the entire test. The results indicated that the 36-question version of this instrument has a good validity and reliability and can be used for Tehranian children.


Main Subjects

Alexander, P. C., Teti, L., & Anderson, C. L. (2000). Childood sexual abuse history and role reversal in parenting. Child Abuse & Neglect, 24(6), 829-838.

Begle, A. M., Dumas, J. E., & Hanson, R. F. (2010). Predicting child abuse potential: An empirical investigation of two theoretical frameworks. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 39(2), 208-219.

Ben Yehuda, Y., Attar-Schwartz, S., Ziv, A., Jedwab, M., & Benbenishty, R. (2010). Child abuse and neglect: reporting by health professionals and their need for training. The Israel Medical Association journal: IMAJ, 12(10), 598-602.

Benton, T. (2015). An empirical assessment of Guttman’s Lambda 4 reliability coefficient. In Quantitative Psychology Research (pp. 301-310). Springer International Publishing.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014). Understanding inter-personal violence:

Christian, C. W., & Schwarz, D. F. (2011). Child maltreatment and the transition to adult-based medical and mental health care. Pediatrics, 127(1), 139-145.

Crawford, M. (2010). Physical abuse: pitfalls and challenges. Paediatrics and Child Health, 20(12), 566-570.

Dubowitz, H., Pitts, S. C., & Black, M. M. (2004). Measurement of three major subtypes of child neglect. Child Maltreatment, 9(4), 344-356.

Fang, X., Brown, D. S., Florence, C. S., & Mercy, J. A. (2012). The economic burden of child maltreatment in the United States and implications for prevention. Child Abuse & Neglect, 36(2), 156-165.

Finkelhor, D., Hamby, S. L., Ormrod, R., & Turner, H. (2005). The Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire: reliability, validity, and national norms. Child Abuse & Neglect, 29(4), 383-412.

Hart, S. N., & Brassard, M. R. (1987). A major threat to children’s mental health: Psychological maltreatment. American Pschologist, 42, 163-165.

Icard, L. D., Jemmott, J. B., Teitelman, A., O’Leary, A., & Heeren, G. A. (2014). Mediation effects of problem drinking and marijuana use on HIV sexual risk behaviors among childhood sexually abused South African heterosexual men. Child Abuse & Neglect, 38(2), 234-242.

Jones, D. J., Lewis, T., Litrownik, A., Thompson, R., Proctor, L. J., Isbell, P., & Runyan, D. (2013). Linking childhood sexual abuse and early adolescent risk behavior: The intervening role of internalizing and externalizing problems. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 41(1), 139-150.

Kent, A., & Waller, G. (1998). The impact of childhood emotional abuse: An extension of the child abuse and trauma scale. Child Abuse & Neglect, 22(5), 393-399.

Kleinman, P. K. (2015). Diagnostic imaging of child abuse. Cambridge University Press.

Mennen, F. E., Kim, K., Sang, J., & Trickett, P. K. (2010). Child neglect: Definition and identification of youth's experiences in official reports of maltreatment. Child Abuse & Neglect, 34(9), 647-658.

Mohamadkhani, P. (2002). Prevalence of child abuse, the most common pattern of abuse in the students of guidance schools across Tehran. Research plan. Health ministry.

Nadi, M. A., & Akbari, A. (2013). An analysis of the relationship between interpersonal conflict in work and social competencies with the experience of non-civic behavior based on the structural equation model. Knowledge and Research in Applied Psychology, 14(4), 4-17.

Norouzi, F. (1993). Background study child abuse and atention deficit of the students aged 14-18 years old in Tehran. Thesis (M.A) clinical psychology, Tehran: Tehran psychiatric Institute.

O’connor, B. P. (2000). SPSS and SAS programs for determining the number of components using parallel analysis and Velicer’s MAP test. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 32(3), 396-402.

Rellini, A. H. (2014). Sexual abuse and sexual function. In G. Corona, E. A. Jannini, & M. Maggi (Eds.), Emotional, physical and sexual abuse. Impact in Children and Social Minorities (pp. 61–70). Cham, Switzerland: Springer.

Shefe, D., Dascal-Weichhendler, H., Rubin, O., Pessach, N., Itzik, D., Benita, S., & Ziv, A. (2007). Domestic violence: a national simulation-based educational program to improve physicians’ knowledge, skills and detection rates. Medical Teacher, 29(5), e133-e138.

Springer, K. W., Sheridan, J., Kuo, D., & Carnes, M. (2007). Long-term physical and mental health consequences of childhood physical abuse: Results from a large population-based sample of men and women. Child Abuse & Neglect, 31(5), 517-530.

Thenaguy Moharrar, G. R. (2000). Comparison of the personal characteristics of child abuser mothers with non-abusive mothers in boys 12-15 years of age in Tehran. MSc thesis of clinical psychology. Welfare and rehabilitation sciences University.

Wilson, H. W., & Widom, C. S. (2009). A prospective examination of the path from child abuse and neglect to illicit drug use in middle adulthood: The potential mediating role of four risk factors. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 38(3), 340-354.

Wolfe, D. A., & Pierre, J. S. (1989). Child abuse and neglect.In Handbook of child psychopathology (pp. 377-398). Springer, Boston, M. A.

World Health Organization. (2014). Violence against women: Intimate partner and sexual violence against women (Fact sheet No. 239). World Health Organization, Geneva. Etrievedfrom

Zolotor, A. J., Runyan, D. K., Dunne, M. P., Jain, D., Péturs, H. R., Ramirez, C., & Isaeva, O. (2009). ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool Children's Version (ICAST-C): Instrument development and multi-national pilot testing. Child Abuse & Neglect, 33(11), 833-841.

Zumbo, B. D., Gadermann, A. M., & Zeisser, C. (2007). Ordinal versions of coefficients alpha and theta for Li.