The Comparison of Opiate Expectancies between Narcotic Anonymous (NA) Male members with other Addicted and Nonaddicted Males


Department of Industrial & Organizational Psychology Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch (Esfahan)


The main purpose of this study was to compare the positive and negative expectancies of permanent male members of NA and other addicted and nonaddicted males. For this purpose, 50 permanent members of NA, along with 50 addicted males (from the self-referred addicts who referred to Outpatient Cessation Center of Addiction in Esfshan) and 50 nonaddicted males selected using convenience sampling (For Na members and non addicted males) and simple random sampling (For self-reffered addicts), respectively. The instrument used in this research was the Golparvar (2005) Opiate Expectancy Questionnaire (OEQ). OEQ has four subscales: Global Negative Expectancies (GNE), Positive–Anticipatory Effects on Self and Others (PAESO), Psychological and Motivational Positive–Anticipatory Effects (PMPE) and Anticipatory Effects on Blood Lipid and Glucose (AEBLG). The total OEQ items are 54. The MANOVA results showed that there was a significant difference between permanent members of NA, with addicted and nonaddicted males in three of the OEQ subscales and total scale. Results of scheffe post–hoc test showed that addicted males have a higher mean in global negative expectancies than no addicted males and NA members. Also, results showed that positive–anticipatory effects on self and others of NA members were higher than addicted and nonaddicted males. In psychological and motivational positive–anticipatory effects and in total scale, NA members have higher means than addicted and nonaddicted males, also addicted males have a higher mean than nonaddicted males. In other cases, there were not any significant differences.