The Mediating Role of Psychological Mindfulness in the Relationship between Psychological Capital and Psychological Well-being

Document Type : Original Article


Department of psychology, Tehran North Branch, Islamic Azad University, Researcher & Counsellor of Education & Training, Tehran, Iran.



Human resources are one of the most important assets of an organization, and improving the psychological well-being of employees is one of the most important tasks of managers. This study aimed to estimate the role of psychological capital and mindfulness on Structural modeling of psychological well-being. Statistical population consisted of all education employees in Tehran's education staff in 2019. The sample consisted of 610 participants selected randomly from the population. In this research, the following scales were used, including; Psychological Wellbeing Questionnaire of Ryff & Keyes (1995), the Psychological Capital Scale of Luthans & Avolio(2007) and the Mindfulness Questionnaire of Baer (2006). Data analysis was done using SEM and Amos20 Software. The obtained results showed that the research model fit indicators were reliable, and the proposed model had an optimal fit. According to this study's findings, it can be concluded that the psychological capital variable incurs direct and indirect effects (due to mindfulness) which is a positive and significant predictor for the psychological well-being of employees (t-value = 5.091, p<0.05, and 95% CI). The results indicate the importance of the role of psychological capital and mindfulness in predicting psychological well-being. Therefore, the level of psychological well-being of employees can be improved with proper planning to strengthen psychological capital and mindfulness.


Main Subjects

Ahmadvand, Z. (2011). Evaluations of the validity and reliability of the five-dimensional mindfulness questionnaire in Iranian non-clinical samples. Master Thesis in Clinical Psychology. Shahed University.
Ahmadvand, Z., Heydarinasab, L., & Shaeeri, M. R. (2012). Explaining psychological wellbeing based on the components of mindfulness, Health Psychology, 1(2), 60-69.
Alipour, S., & Zaghibi Ghanad, S. (2017). Investigating the relationship between mindfulness and psychological wellbeing: the role of strategic commitment and self-esteem, Journal of Positive Psychology, 3(18), 1-2.
Amooee, N., Ajam, A., & Badnava, S. (2017). The role of psychological capital in predicting academic achievement of students in the Faculty of Nutrition and Food Industry, Research in Medical Education, 9(2), 66-75.
Baer, R., A. (2006). Mindfulness-Based Treatment Approaches.Clinician's Guide to Evidence Base and Applications. A volume in Practical Resources for the Mental Health Professional. Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky.
Baer, R., A., Smith G., T., & Allen, K. B. (2004). Assessment of mindfulness by self-report: The Kentucky Inventory of  Mindfulness Skills. Assessment, 11, 191-206.
Baer, R., A., Smith, G., T., Hopkins, J., Krietemeyer, J., & Toney, L. (2006). Using self-report assessment methods to explore facets of mindfulness. Assessment, 13(1), 27-45.

Bahadori Khosroshahi J., Hashemi Nosratabad, T., & Babapour Khairuddin, J. (2014). Relationship between psychological capital and social capital of Tabriz University students. Journal of Research and Health, 2(1).153-145.

Bailey, T. C., & Snyder, Ch. R. (2010). Satisfaction with life and hope: A look at age and marital status. The Psychological Record, 57(2), 5-16.
Bamber, M., D. & Schneider, J., K.(2016). Mindfulness-based meditation to decrease stress and anxiety in college students: A narrative synthesis of the research. Educational Research Review, 18, 1-32.
Bandura, A. (2008). An agentic perspective on positive psychology. In S. J. Lopez (Ed.), Praeger perspectives. Positive psychology: Exploring the best in people, Vol. 1. Discovering human strengths (pp. 167-196). Westport, CT, US: Praeger Publishers/Greenwood Publishing Group.
Bayani, A. A., Mohammad Koochekya, A., & Bayani, A. (2008). Reliability and validity of ryff's psychological well-being scales. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology (IJPCP), 14(2), 146-151.
Bennett, K., & Dorjee, D. (2016). The impact of a mindfulness-based stress reduction course (MBSR) on well-being and academic attainment of sixth-form student. Mindfulness, 7(1), 105-114.
Branstrom, R., Duncan, L. G., & Moskowitz, J. T. (2011). The association between dispositional mindfulness, psychological well-being, and perceived health in a Swedish population-based sample. British Journal of Health Psychology, 16(2), 300-316.
Bowlin, S. L., Baer, R. A.(2011). Relationships between mindfulness, self-control and psychological functioning. Personality and Individual Differences, 52(3), 411-415.
Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2003). The benefits of being present: mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(3). 822-848.
Carmody, J., & Baer, R. A. (2008). Relationships between mindfulness practice and levels of mindfulness, medical and psychological symptoms and well-being in a mindfulness-based stress reduction program. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 31(1), 23-33.
Chadwick, P., Hember, M., Mead, S., Lilley, B., & Dagnan, D. (2007), Responding mindful to unpleasant thoughts and images: Reliability and validity of the Southampton Mindfulness Questionnaire (SMQ), Unpublished manuscript, University of Southampton Royal South Hants Hospital, U.K.
Costa, P. T., & McCra, R. R. (1992). Domains and facets: hierarchical personality assessment using the revised NEO personality inventory. Journal of Personality Assessment, 64, 21-50.
Damiano, R. F., De Andrade, R. L. M., Dos Santos, A. G., Da Silva, B. A., & Lucchetti, G. (2016). Empathy is associated with meaning of life and mental health treatment but not religiosity among brazilian medical students. Journal of Religion and Health, 1–15.
Dehghani, M., Ismailian, N., Akbari, F., Hasanvand, M., Nikmanesh, E. (2015). Investigating the psychometric properties and factor structure of the five-facet mind questionnaire, Thought and Behavior, 9(33), 77-88.
Duan, W. (2016). Mediation role of individual strengths in dispositional mindfulness and mental health. Personality and Individual Differences, 99, 7-10.
Falkenstrom, F. (2010). Studying mindfulness in experienced mediators: a quasi- experimental approach. Personality and Individual Differences, 48, 305-310.
Fouadi, T. (2014). The single and multiple relations of parenting styles, coping strategies, resilience and self-efficacy with psychological well-being in first grade female high school students in Ahvaz. MA Thesis in Educational Psychology, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz.
Emad, S., Atashpour, S. H., Zakerfard, M. (2016). The moderating role of mindfulness and acceptance in predicting psychological wellbeing based on the students' perfectionism, Journal of Positive Psychology, 2(3), 49-66.
Fathi, H. (2017). Designing and testing a causal relationship model between social capital and psychological well-being mediated by happiness, responsibility and seeking help in students of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, MA Thesis in Educational Psychology, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz.
Ghane’nia, M., Forouhar, M., & Jalili, S. (2015). The effect of managers 'psychological capital training on increasing employees' job motivation. Journal of Positive Psychology, 1(3), 59-72.
Gethin, R. (2011). On some definitions of mindfulness. Contemporary Buddhism, An Interdisciplinary Journal, 12(01), 263-279.
Ghasemi Jobneh, R., Mousavi, S. W., Zanipoor, A., Hosseini Sidigh, M. (2016). The relationship between mindfulness and emotion regulation with students' academic procrastination, Journal of Education Strategies in Medical Sciences, 9(2), 134-141.
Goldsmith, A., H.; Veum, J., R. & Darity, W. (1997). The impact of psychological and human capital on wages, Economic inquiry.35(4).815–829.
Golestani ‌ Bakht, Tahereh (1386). Investigating the relationship between demographic characteristics and mental well-being and happiness in the Tehrani population. Master Thesis. Al-Zahra University.
Hanley, A., Warner, A., & Garland, E. L. (2015). Associations between mindfulness, psychological well-being, and subjective well-being with respect to contemplative practice. Journal of Happiness Studies, 16(6), 1423-1436.
Hassanzadeh Namin, F., Peymani, J., Ranjbaripour, T., Abolmaali Al-hosseini, Kh. (2019). The model of predicting psychological wellbeing based on the resilience considering the mediating role of perceived stress, Journal of Psychological Sciences, 18 (77), 569-578.
Hassanzadeh Pesikhani, M. S., Bagherzadeh Khodashahri, R. (2018). The effect of social capital on employee psychological empowerment: investigating the mediating role of mental wellbeing, Social Capital Management,111-134.

Hashemi Nosratabad T., Babapour Khairuddin J. , Bahadori Khosroshahi J. (2011). The role of psychological capital in psychological well-being according to the adjusting effects of social capital. Social Psychology Research.1(4). 123-144.

Heydari, M., Morovati, Z., Khanbabaee, R., Farshchi, N. (2017). The role of mindfulness, general self-efficacy and emotional intelligence in predicting perceived stress in female students, Social Psychological Studies of Women, 15 (1), 189-212.
Heyrani, A.; Hosseini, E.; Mazloom saleh alrabiavi, A. & khanmoradi, S.(2016).The path analysis of psychological capital and job satisfaction of physical education and nonphysical education teacher in amara city of Iraq. Organizational behavior management in sport studies. 3 (11): 97-107.
Hooman, H. A. (2016). Structural Equation Modeling With LISREL Application (with corrections). 5 th ed Tehran: SAMT.
Hoveida,R., Mokhtari,H. & Forouhar, M.(2012). Relationship between psychological capital components and organizational commitment components. Cognitive & Behavioral Sciences Research.2(2).43-56.
Imani, M., Karimi, J., Behbahani, M., Omidi, A. (2017). The role of mindfulness, psychological flexibility and cohesive self-knowledge in students' psychological well-being, Journal of Feyz, 21 (2). 170-177.
Ismaili, Z.(2015).Develop a model of psychological wellbeing according to mindfulness and sense of responsibility in students in Tehran, MA thesis in school counseling, Allameh Tabatabai University, Faculty of Literature and Humanities.
Javed, B.; Arif Khan, A.; Bashir, S.& Arjoon, S.(2017). Impact of ethical leadership on creativity: the role of psychological empowerment. Current Issues in Tourism, 20(8), 839-851.
Josefsson, T., Larsman, p., Broberg, A. G., & Lundh, L. G. (2011). Self-reported mindfulness mediates the relation between meditation experience and psychological well-being. Mindfulness, 2(1), 49-58.
Joshanloo, M., Rostami,R. & Nosratabadi,M.(2006).  Investigating the factor structure of the comprehensive welfare scale. Transformational Psychology, 1(3), 35-52.
Jowkar, B. )2008). the mediating role of resilience in the relationship between general and emotional intelligence and life satisfaction. Contemporary Psychology, 2(2), 3-12.
Kabat-Zinn, J. (2005). Coming to our senses. Healing Ourselves and the World through Mindfulness. New York. Hyperrion.
Keng, Sh., Smoski, M. J. & Robins, C., J.(2011). Effects of Mindfulness on Psychological Health: A Review of Empirical Studies. Clinical Psychology Review, 31, 1041-1056.
Khanjani, M., Shahidi, SH., Fathabadi, J. Mazaheri, M. A. & Shokri, O. (2014). Factor structure and psychometric properties of the Ryff’s scale of psychological well-being, short form (18-item) among male and female students Journal of Thought & Behavior in Clinical Psychology, 9(32), 27-36.
Khosravi, H., Taherpour, F., & Pourshafi, H.(2020). The role of happyness work in innovative behavior with respect to the mediation of psychological capital in elementary school teachers in Birjand. Journal of Educational Psychology Studies, 16(36), 29-50.
Kurd, B., & Mehdi Pour, H. (2018). The relationship between mindfulness and perceived self-efficacy with subjective well-being among cancer patients in Tabriz hospitals. Iranian Journal of Nursing Research. IJNR, 13(1), 11-17.
Kumar, S. M., Feldman, G. C., & Hayes, A. M. (2005). Change in mindfulness and emotion regulation in an integrative therapy for depression. Manuscript under review.
Luthans, F., Youssef, C., & Avolio, B., J. (2007). Psychological Capital: investment and developing Positive Organizational Behavior. California: Positive Organizational Behavior. SAGE Publications. 9-24.
Luthans, F., & Avolio, B., J. (2007). Positive psychological capital: Measurement and relationship with performance and satisfaction. Pers Psychology, 6, 138-146.
Luthans, F., Avolio, B. J., Avey, J., B., & Norman, S. M. (2007). Positive psychological capital: Measurement and relationship with performance and satisfaction. Personnel Psychology, 60(3), 541-572.
Mallya, S., & Fiocco, A. J. (2016). Effects of Mindfulness Training on Cognition and Well-Being in Healthy Older Adults. Mindfulness, 7(2), 453-465.
Mehrabi, F. (2019). The effectiveness of mindfulness intervention based on stress reduction on quality of life and the number of seizure attacks in patients with epilepsy. Shenakht Journal of Psychology and Psychiatry, 6(1), 152-159.
Mehri, D., Zamani, R., Vosoughi, A., & Namdar, H. (2020). Provide a model for identifying human capital indicators in a military university with a combined ISM-ANP approach, Human Resource Management Research, 12(1), 39-71.
Mozafarizadeh, M., Heydari, F., & Khabiri, M. (2018). The effectiveness of mindfulness training and acceptance on reducing sports injury anxiety and improving the athletic performance of footballers, Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 5.
Naderipour, H. (2018). Explaining psychological well-being based on mindfulness, need for cognition and psychological capital in students of Bu Ali Sina University of Hamadan, MA thesis, Educational Psychology.
Nisi, A. K., Arshadi, N., & Rahimi, E. (2011). The causal relationship between psychological capital and positive emotions, psychological well-being, job performance and job commitment, Journal of Psychological Achievements (Educational Sciences and Psychology), Shahid Chamran University of Ahwaz, 4.3(18), 1, 19-46.
Neuser, N., J. (2010). Examining the factors of mindfulness: a confirmatory factot analysis of the five facet mindfulness questionnaire. School of Professional Psychology Paper. 128.
Oberle, E., & Schonert-Reichl, K., A. (2016). Stress contagion in the classroom? The link between classroom teacher burnout and morning cortisol in elementary school students. Social Science & Medicine, 159, 30-37.
Pahlavani, A., Jamali Rousht, S. (2016). Assessing the psychological capital of employees in Payame Noor University of East Azerbaijan Province, National Conference on Development Management (Challenges and Strategies in Public and Private Organizations), 1-14.
Parker, Ch., P., Baltes, B. B., Young, S. A., Huff, J. W., Altmann, R. A., Lacost, H. A., & Roberts, J. E. (2003). Relationships between psychological climate perceptions and work outcomes: A meta‐analytic review. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 24(4), 389-416.
Peterson, Ch. (2000). The future of optimism. American Psychologist, 55(1), 44-58.
Prazak, M., Critelli, J., Martin, L., Miranda, V., Purdum, M., & Powers, C. (2012). Mindfulness and its role in physical and psychological health. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, 4(1), 91-105.
Radler, B. T., Rigotti, A., & Ryff, C. D. (2018). Persistently high psychological well-being predicts better HDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels: findings from the midlifein the U.S. (MIDUS) longitudinal study. Lipids in Health and Disease, 17, 1.1-9.
Rezaee Jandani, M., Hoveyda, R., & Samavatian, H. (2015). The concept of psychological empowerment and its relationship with teachers' psychological capital, New Educational Approaches, 10(1), 67-82.
Riolli, L., Savicki, V., & Richards, J. (2012). Psychological Capital as a Buffer to Student Stress. Psychology, 3, 1202-1207.
Rostami, M. (2013). The effect of exercise on brain signals mindfulness-based women depressed and anxious. M.Sc. Dissertation. Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Faculty of Education and Psychology.
Roche, M., Haar, J. M., & Luthans, F. (2014). The Role of Mindfulness and Psychological Capital on the Well-Being of Leaders. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 19(4), 476-489.
Ryff, C., D. (1989). Happiness Is Everything, Or Is It? Explorations on the Meaning of Psychological Well-being. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 57, 1069-1081.
Ryff, C. D., & Singer, B. H. (2006). Best news yet on the six-factor model of well-being. Social Science Research, 35, 1103–1119.
Ryff, C. D., & Singer, B. H. (1998). The contours of positive human health. Journal of Psychological Inquiry, 19, 1-28.
Ryff, C. D., & Keyes, C. L. M. (1995). The structure of psychological well-being revisited. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 69(4), 719-727.
Sadeghpour Gildeh, B., & Moradi, W. (2013). Statistical analysis with Amos and SPSS software, Mazandaran University Press, Second Edition.
Sadidi, M., & Yamini, M. (2018). Predicting psychological wellbeing based on the coping strategies and alexithymia, Psychological Studies, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, Al-Zahra University (PBUH), Quarterly Journal of Psychological Studies, 14(2), 125-142.
Salajeghe, S., Emamipour, S., Nematollahzadeh Mahani, K. (2019). Structural pattern of relationships between mindfulness and psychological wellbeing based on the mediating role of cognitive emotion regulation strategies in women with breast cancer, Applied Psychology, 13, 1(49), 77-98.
Sarami Foroushani, Gh., Akhundi, N., Alipour, A., & Arab Sheibani, Kh. (2014). Validation and study of the factor structure of the psychological capital questionnaire in the experts of Iran Khodro Diesel Company. Psychological Studies, 10(3), 95-110.
Savad koohi, A., & Motamedi, E. (2017). The relationship between the dimensions of psychological capital and job performance, Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology Studies, 1(4), 59-74.
Sedghi, P., & Cheraghi, A. (2018). Evaluation of the effectiveness of mindfulness training on psychological wellbeing and resilience of female-headed households, Research Family Quarterly, 14(4), 549-562.
Sefidi, F., & Fazrad, V. (2012). Validation of Ryff psychological wellbeing test on students of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Scientific Journal of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, 16(1), 65-71.
Segal, Zindel, V., Williams, J. M. G., & Teasdale, J. D. (2002). Mindfulness based cognitive therapy for depression: A new approach to preventing relapse. NewYork: Guilford press.
Shakarami, M., Davarnia, R., & Zahrakar, R. (2014). Predictor Factors of Psychological Well-being in Students. Journal of Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, 21, 3(3), 468-481.
Shaykh Al-Eslami, A. (2019). Predicting students' entrepreneurial intentions based on capital psychological and career path adaptability, Journal of Research in Educational Systems,13(44) .1-1.
Siegel, R. D. (2010). The mindfulness Solution every day practices for everyday problems, New York: Guilford.
Tabrizchi, N., Vahidi, Z. (2015). Comparison of emotion regulation, mindfulness and psychological well-being in mothers of students with and without learning disabilities, Learning Disabilities, 4(4), 21-35. 
Tang, Y., Hölzel, B. K., & Posner, M. I. (2015). The neuroscience of mindfulness meditation. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 16(4), 213-225.
Twenge J. M., & Gabrielle, N. M.(2020). Gender differences in associations between digital media use and psychological well-being: Evidence from three large datasets. J Adolesc. 79, 91-102.
Walach, H., Buchheld, N., Buttenmuller, V., & Kleinknecht, N. & Schmidt, S. (2006). Measuring mindfulness-the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI). Personality and Individual Differences, 40(8), 1543-1555.
Zadhassan, Z., Dehghanpour, M., Bastami, M. & Yar Ahmadi, H. (2017). The study of the relationship between happiness and psychological well-being with job satisfaction of nurses in military hospitals in Khuzestan province, Nurse and Pysician in War, 5(15), 11-19.
Zarei, M. (2018). The moderating role of communicational spirituality in the relationship between economic pressure and marital quality and stability, MA Thesis, Tehran University of Science and Culture.
Ziainejad, M. (2016). The relationship between attachment styles and premenstrual syndrome with psychological well-being of women mediated by cognitive emotion regulation, self-efficacy and perceived social support in the first trimester of pregnancy. MA Thesis in Psychology, Ahvaz Azad University.