The Causal Relationship between Mental Strength and Mindfulness with Marital Satisfaction through Parental Stress

Document Type : Original Article

Authors

1 PH.D Student of Exceptional Children Psychology, Department of Psychology, Ahvaz, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran

2 Faculty member of department of Psychology, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran

3 Department of Psychology, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran

4 Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz branch

10.22034/ijpb.2021.202385.1120

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to design and test a model to investigate the effect of mental strength and mindfulness on marital satisfaction considering the mediating role of parenting stress in mothers of exceptional children. In this descriptive-correlational study, the statistical population consisted of all mothers of exceptional children in Ahvaz. A sample of 264 women was selected through convenient sampling method. The instruments were Clough, Earle & Sewell (2002) Mental Strength Questionnaire (2002), Baer, Smit, Hopkins, Krietemeyer & Toney Mindfulness Questionnaire (2006), Enrich Marital Satisfaction Scale of Olson, Fournier, and Druckman (1985) and Abidin's Parenting Stress Index (1990). The proposed model was evaluated by path analysis method. Bootstrap test was used to test indirect relationships. The results showed significant and direct relationships between mental strength and parenting stress, mindfulness and parenting stress, parenting stress and marital satisfaction and mindfulness and marital satisfaction but there was no significant relationship between mental strength and marital satisfaction. Based on the results, the proposed model is a well-fitting model and is considered as an important step in determining the effective factors in the marital satisfaction of mothers.

Keywords

Main Subjects


Abidin, R. R., & Abidin, EdD. (1990). Parenting Stress Index (PSI), Fourth Edition (PSI™-4) (Vol. 100). Charlottesville, VA: Pediatric Psychology Press. ‏
Afrooz, Q., & Taghizadeh, H. (2014). Comparison of perceived social support and mental health of mothers of children with and without hearing-impairment. Exceptional Education Journal, 2(124), 7-17.‏
Afrooz, G. A., Hooman, H. A., & Moradi, A. (2012). Investigation and comparison of the mental wellbeing, coping styles‎ and Perceived Social Support in Parents having exceptional and‎ normal children, Journal of Research in Psychological Health, 5(2), 45-58.
Avila, J. D. F. (2017). Stress and Marital Satisfaction of Parents with Children with Fragile X Syndrome (Doctoral dissertation, Walden University).‏
Babaei, N., Afrooz, G. A., & Arjmandnia, A. A. (2017). Developing a life quality promoting program and investigation of its effectiveness on mental health and marital satisfaction of mothers with down syndrome daughters. Journal of Family Psychology, 4(1), 75-86.‏
Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., Hopkins, J., Krietemeyer, J., & Toney, L. (2006). Using self-report assessment methods to explore facets of mindfulness. Assessment, 13(1), 27-45.‏
Bakhtiyari, M., Emaminaeini, M., Hatami, H., Khodakarim, S., & Sahaf, R. (2017). Depression and perceived social support in the elderly. Iranian Journal of Ageing, 12(2), 192-207.‏
Cachia, R. L., Anderson, A., & Moore, D. W. (2016). Mindfulness, Stress and Well-Being in Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review. Journalof Child and Family Studies, 25(1), 1-14
Clough, P., Earle, K., & Sewell, D. (2002). Mental toughness: The concept and its measurement. In: Solutions in Sport Psychology, 32-43. London: Thomson..
Dabrowska, A., & Pisula, E. (2010). Parenting stress and coping styles in mothers and fathers of pre‐school children with autism and Down syndrome. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 54(3), 266-280.‏
Dadsetan, P., Ahmadi, A. A., & Hasanabadi, H. R. (2006). Parenting stress and general health: A research on the relation between parenting stress and general health among housewife-mothers and nurse-mothers with young children. Developmental Psychology Journal of Iranian Psychologists, 2(7), 171-184.
DePape, A. M., & Lindsay, S. (2015). Parents’ experiences of caring for a child with autism spectrum disorder. Qualitative Health Research25(4), 569-583.‏
Gholami Jam, F., Takaffoli, M., Kamali, M., Eslamian, A., Alavi, Z., & AliNia, V. (2018). Systematic Review on Social Support of Parent/Parents of Disabled Children. Archives of Rehabilitation, 19(2), 126-141.‏
Ginieri‐Coccossis, M., Rotsika, V., Skevington, S., Papaevangelou, S., Malliori, M.,         Tomaras, V., & Kokkevi, A. (2013). Quality of life in newly diagnosed children with specific learning disabilities (SpLD) and differences from typically developing children: a study of child and parent reports. Child: Care, Health and Development, 39(4), 581-591.‏
Gu, J., Strauss, C., Bond, R., & Cavanagh, K. (2015). How do mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and mindfulness-based stress reduction improve mental health and wellbeing? A systematic review and meta-analysis of mediation studies. Clinical Psychology Review, 37, 1-12.‏
Hartley, S. L., Barker, E. T., Seltzer, M. M., Greenberg, J. S., & Floyd, F. J. (2011). Marital satisfaction and parenting experiences of mothers and fathers of adolescents and adults with autism. American Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 116(1), 81–95.
Hssrdh, H., Ghdfg, D., & Sgsdg, G. (2015). The relationship of resiliency and perceived   social support with adjustment of mothers with intellectually disable child. Psychology of Exceptional Individuals5(20), 125-139.‏
Jones, L., Hastings, R. P., Totsika, V., Keane, L., & Rhule, N. (2014). Child behavior       problems and parental well-being in families of children with autism: The mediating role of mindfulness and acceptance. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities119(2), 171-185.‏
Jons, B., Horsburgh, V. A., Schermer, J. A., Veselka, A., & Vernon, P. A. (2012). A behavioral genetic study of mental toughness and personality. Pers Individ Dif. 46(2), 100-105.
Ki, Y. W., & Joanne, C. C. Y. (2014). Stress and marital satisfaction of parents with children with disabilities in Hong Kong. Psychology.
Kokkevi, A. (2012). Quality of life in newly diagnosed children with specific learning disabilities (SLD) and differences from typically developing children: a study of child and parent reports. Child Care Health Dev, doi: 10.1111/j.1365- 2214.01369.x. [Epub ahead of print ؟؟
Kord, B. (2018). The relationship between mindfulness and perceived self-efficacy with subjective well-being among cancer patients in Tabriz hospitals. Iranian Journal of Nursing Research13(1), 11-17.‏
Lawrence, E., Rothman, A. D., Cobb, R. J., & Bradbury, T. N. (2010). Marital satisfaction across the transition to parenthood: Three Eras of Research. In M. S. Schulz, M. K. Pruett, P. K. Kerig, & R. D. Parke (Eds.), Decade of Behavior (science conference). Strengthening couple relationships for optimal child development: Lessons from research and intervention (97–114). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/12058-007.
Mahoney, J. W., Gucciardi, D. F., Ntoumanis, N., & Mallet, C. J. (2014). Mental toughness in sport: Motivational antecedents and associations with performance and psychological health. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology36(3), 281-292.‏
McConkey, R., Truesdale-Kennedy, M., Chang, M. Y., Jarrah, S., & Shukri, R. (2008). The impact on mothers of bringing up a child with intellectual disabilities: a cross-cultural study. Int J Nurs Stud. 45(1), 65-74.
Musavinasab, M., Ravanipour, M., Pouladi, S., Motamed, N., & Barekat, M. (2016). Examining the validity and reliability of the cardiovascular disease questionnaire in measuring the empowerment of elderly patients to receive social support. Iranian Journal of Ageing, 11(2), 258-269.‏
Naderi, F., Safarzadeh, S., & Roya, M. (2011). Comparison of self-sickness, social support, social anxiety and general health among mothers with mentally retarded and normal children. Health and Psychology, 1(1), 17-40.‏
Naji, A. A., Hosseinsabet, F., & Pourasadi, Z. (2018). Prediction of Mental Health Based on Mental Toughness by the Mediation of Personality Dimensions. Yafteh19(5), 81-92.‏
Nicholls, A. R., Perry, J. L., Jones, L., Sanctuary, C., Carson, F., & Clough, P. J. (2015). The mediating role of mental toughness in sport. J Sports Med Phys Fitness, 55(7-8), 824-34.
Niemczyk, J., Fischer, R., Wagner, C., Burau, A., Link, T., & von Gontard, A. (2019). Detailed Assessment of Incontinence, Psychological Problems and Parental Stress in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders49(5), 1966-1975.‏
Nourani, S., Seraj, F., & Shakeri, M. T. (2018). The Comparison of Marital Satisfaction between Men without Child and Men with First and Second Child in Transition to Parenthood. The Horizon of Medical Sciences24(3), 214-222.‏
Olson, D. H., Fournier, D. G., & Druckman, J. M. (1985). ENRICH: Enriching & Nurturing Relationship Issues, Communication & Happiness. Family inventories: inventories used in a national survey of families across the family life cycle/ [David H. Olson...[et al.]].‏
Sedighi Arfaee, F., & Hesampour, F. (2016). The relationship between mindfulness and perceived social support and mental health in mothers of children with intellectual disability. Quarterly Journal of Social Work4(4), 42-52.‏
Sim, A., Cordier, R., Vaz, S., Parsons, R., & Falkmer, T. (2017). Relationship satisfaction            and dyadic coping in couples with a child with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders47(11), 3562-3573.‏
Smith, L. E., Greenberg, J. S., & Seltzer, M. M. (2012). Social support and well-being at mid-life among mothers of adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of autism and developmental disorders, 42(9), 1818-1826.‏
Story, L. B., & Dians, T. N. (2017). Understanding marriage and stress: Essential questions and challenges. Clinical Psychology Review, 23(8), 1139-62.
Stylianou, A. (2017). Mothers with disabled children in Cyprus: experiences and support.             published doctoral dissertation, Institute of Education CL University College London. http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/10023393/1/Stylianou_10023393
Tang, Y. Y., Hölzel, B. K., & Posner, M. I. (2015). The neuroscience of mindfulness meditation. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 16(4), 213-225.
Thienot, E. B., Jackson, J., Dimmock, J. R., Grove, M., Bernier & Fournier, J. F. (2014). Development and Preliminary Validation of the Mindfulness Inventory for Sport.Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 15(1), 72-80.
Van Dam, N. T., Earleywine, M., & Danoff-Burg, S. (2009). Differential item function across meditators and non-meditators on the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire. Personality and Individual Differences, 47(5), 516-521.‏
Yamaoka, Y., Tamiya, N., Izumida, N., Kawamura, A., Takahashi, H., & Noguchi, H. (2016). The relationship between raising a child with a disability and the mental health of mothers compared to raising a child without disability in Japan. SSM-Population Health, 2, 542-548.