The Effect of Organizational Trust and Workplace Spirituality on Organizational Citizenship Behaviour and Psychological Well-being: Mediating Role of Organization Based Self-Esteem

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Psychology, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran ,

2 Department of Industrial and Organizational Psychology Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran

3 Department of Psychology Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz , Ahvaz,Iran


The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of organizational trust and workplace spirituality on organizational citizenship behaviour and psychological well-being with mediating role of organization based self-esteem. Participants were 300 employees of an industrial company that randomly selected. The questionnaires of organizational trust (Yang), workplace spirituality (Milimen, Zaploski, and Fergousen), organizational citizenship behaviour (Padsakef, MacKenzie, Moorman and Fetter) psychological well-being (Rif), and organization-based self-esteem (Pierce, Gardner, Cummins, and Dunham) were used to collect data. The Structural Equation Modelling with AMOS 18 and SPSS 18 and bootstrap method were used to test the proposed model of the study. The results showed that organization-based self-esteem completely mediated the effect of organizational trust and workplace spirituality on the organizational citizenship behaviour and the psychological well-being.


Main Subjects

Aryee, S., Budhwar, P., & Tan, H. H. (2003). Leader–member exchange and contextual performance: An examination of the mediating influence of organization-based self-esteem. A paper presented at the annual meeting of the Academy of Management, Seattle, August.
Ashmos, D. P., & Duchon, D. (2000). Spirituality at work: a conceptualization and measure, Journal of Management Inquiry, 9(2), pp. 134-145.
Avey, J. B., Palanski, M. E., & Walumbwa, F. O. (2011). When leadership goes unnoticed: the moderating role of follower self-esteem on the relationship between ethical leadership and follower behavior, Journal of Business Ethics, 98, pp.573–582.
Blau, P. (1964). Exchange and Power in Social Life, Wiley, New York, NY.
Cekmecelioglu, H. G. (2007). Evaluation of the relationships among managerial support, organizational citizenship behavior and job performance. XVth National Management and Organization Conference book (pp. 185–192). Sakarya University,Turkey.
Charoensukmongkol, P., Daniel, J. L., & Chatelain-Jardon, R. (2015). The contribution of workplace spirituality to organizational citizenship behavior. Advances in Business Research, 6, 32–45
Beikzad, J., Yazdani, S., & Hamdollahi, M. (2011). Workplace spirituality and its impact on the components of organizational citizenship behavior. Quarterly Journal of Educational Administration Research, 3(9), 61–90.
Chattopadhyay, P. (2003). Can dissimilarity lead to positive outcomes? The influence of open versus closed minds. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 24(3), 205-312.
Cho, Y. B., & Ha, T. Y. (2016). A study on effect of workplace spirituality of community enterprise on organizational citizenship behavior: Mediating effects of job satisfaction. Management Information Systems Review, 35(2), 137–165.
Choi, J. P. (2008). Event justice perceptions and employees’ reactions: Perceptions of socialentity justice as a moderator. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93, 513–528.
Conger, J. A., & Kanungo, R. N. (1988). The empowerment process: Integrating theory and practice. Academy of Management Review, 13, 471-482.
Costa, A. C., & Anderson, N. R. (2012). Advances and developments in trust and social capital at work. In A. C. Costa & N. Anderson (Eds.), Major works: Trust and social capital in organizations (pp. ix–xxiii). London: Sage.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The “what” and “why” of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior, Psychological Inquiry, 4, pp. 227–268.
Demircan, N., & Ceylan, A. (2003). The concept of organizational trust: Reasons and results. Journal of Management and Economy, 10(2), 139–150.
Diener, E. (2000). Subjective well-being. The science of happiness and a proposal for a national index. - PubMed - NCBI, American Psychologist, 55(1), pp. 34-43.
Duchon, D., & Plowman, D. A. (2005), Nurturing the spirit at work: Impact on work unit performance, The Leadership Quarterly, Vol.16, pp. 807-833.
Erdem, F., & Ozen, J. (2002). The effect oftrust towards the guides in academicals organizations ondevelopment of civic virtue behavior as an organizationalcitizenship behavior dimension. Xth National Management and Organization Conference book (pp. 608–616), Akdeniz, University, Antalya, Turkey.
Fabricatore, A. N., Handal, P. J., & Fenzel, L. M. (2000). Personal spirituality as a moderator of the relationship between stressors and subjective well-being, Journal of Psychology and Theology, 28(3), pp. 221-228.
Ferres, N., Connell, J., & Travaglione, A. (2004). Co-worker trust as a social catalyst for constructive employee attitudes. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 19(6), 608–622.
Galletta, M., Portoghese, I., & Battistelli, A. (2011). Intrinsic motivation, job autonomy and turnover intention in the Italian healthcare: The mediating role of affective commitment,"
Journal of Management Research, 3(2), pp. 1–19.
Ghorbanifar, M., & Azma, F. (2014). Workplace spirituality and organizational citizenship behavior: evidence from banking industry. Management Science Letters, 4, 1685–1692.
Halis, M., Gokgoz, G. S., & Yasar, O. (2007). Deterministic factors in organizational trust and a case study in banking sector. Journal of Social Sciences, 17, 187–205.
Ivtzan, I., Chan, C. P. L., Gardner, H. E., & Prashar, K. (2013), Linking religion and spirituality with psychological well-being: examining self-actualization, meaning in life, and personal growth initiative, Journal of Religion and Health, 52(3), pp. 915-929.
Jex, S. M., & Elaqua, T. C. (1999). Self-esteem as a moderator. A comparison of global and organization-based measures. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 72(1), 71-81.
Kamil, N. M., Sulaiman, M., Ahad, M., Gani, O., & Khaliq, A. (2015). The effect of piety on organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) from Islamic perspective: a study of professionals in Southeast Asia, Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 10(1), pp. 223 – 239.
Khasab, A. S., Khashab, A. M., Mohammadi, M. R., Zarabipour, H., & Malekpour, V. (2015). Predicting dimensions of psychological well-being based on religious orientations and spirituality: an investigation into a causal model, Iranian Journal of Psychiatry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, 10(1), p. 50.
Kim, Y. J., & Hunsaker, W. D. (2018). The effect of workplace spirituality on organizational citizenship behavior: The Mediating effect of job engagement. The International Journal of Humanities & Social Studies, 6(2), 67–74.
Korman, A. K. (1976). Hypothesis of work behavior revisited and an extension. Academy of Management Review,1, 50–63.
Krishnakumar, S., & Neck, C. P. (2002). The "what," "why" and "how" of spirituality in the workplace, Journal of Managerial Psychology, 17(3), pp. 153-164.
Lee, R. M. (2003). Do ethnic identity and other-group orientation protect against discrimination for Asian Americans? Journal of Counseling Psychology, 50, 133–141.
Miles, D. E., Borman, W. E., Spector, P. E., & Fox, S. (2002), Building an integrative model of extra role work behaviors: A comparison of counterproductive work behavior with organizational citizenship behavior, International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 10(1–2), pp. 51–57.
Milliman, J., Czaplewski, A. J., & Ferguson, A. J. (2003). Workplace spirituality and employee work attitudes: An exploratory empirical assessment. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 16(4), 426-447.
Mitroff, I. I., & Denton, E. A. (1999). A study of spirituality in the workplace. Journal of Management Review, 40(4), 83–97.
Pierce, J. L., & Gardner, D. G. (2004). Self-esteem within the work and organizational context: A review of the organization-based self-esteem literature, Journal of Management, 30, pp. 591–622.
Pierce, J. L., Gardner, D. G., Cummings, L. L., & Dunham, R. B. (1989), Organization-based self-esteem: Construct definition, measurement, and validation, Academy of Management Journal, 32, pp. 622–648.
Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Moorman, R. H., & Fetter R. (1990). Transformational leader behaviors and their effects on followers’trust in leader, satisfaction and organizational citizenship behaviors. Leadership Quarterly, 1(2), 107–142.
Polat, S. (2008). Perceptions of high school teachers on organizational justice, organizational trust and organizational citizenship behaviors. Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Y ˘ onetimi Dergisi ¨, 54, 307–331.
Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2004). SPSS and SAS procedures for estimating indirect effects in simple mediation models, Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, and Computers, 36(4), pp. 717-731.
Royle, T. (2010). An empirical investigation of the mediating role of organization-based self-esteem, International Journal of Management and Marketing Research, 3(2), pp.33-52.
Ryff, C. D. (1989). Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological wellbeing”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57(6), pp. 1069-1081.
Samancı, G. (2007). Unpublished master’s thesis, Afyon Kocatepe University Social Sciences Institute, Afyonkarahisar, Turkey.
Shakki, M. A. (2015). The relationship between workplace spirituality and organizational citizenship behavior in employees of Khavar Dasht Company of Aliabad Katoul. Journal of Management Sciences, 1(3), 6–19.
Shekari, H. (2014). Promoting organizational citizenship behaviors in organizations: A Reflection on workplace spirituality approach. Journal of Educational and Management Studies, 4(1), 100–107.
Tang, T. L., & Ibrahim, A. H. S. (1998). Antecedents of organizational citizenship behavior revisited: Public personnel in the United States and in the Middle East. Public Personnel Management, 27(4), 529–549.
Van Dyne, L., VandeWalle, D., Kostova, T., & Cummings, L. L. (2000). Collectivism, propensity to trust and self-esteem as predictors of organizational citizenship in a non-work setting. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21, 3–23.
Wright, T. A., & Cropanzano, R. (2000). Psychological well‐being and job satisfaction as predictors
of job performance. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 5(1), 84.
Yang, J. (2005). The role of trust in organizations: Do face and bases matter? Doctoral dissertation,  Louisiana State University.
Young, J. S., Cashwell, C. S., & Shcherbakova, J. (2000). The moderating relationship of spirituality on negative life events and psychological adjustment, Counseling and Values, 45(1), pp. 49-57.
Yucel, P. Z. (2006). Organizational trust and its relationship with jobsatisfaction, and a research. Unpublished master’s thesis, Social Sciences Institute, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey.
Zellars, K. L., & Perrewé, P. L. (2003). The role of spirituality in occupational stress and well-being, in Robert, A.G. and Jurkiewicz, C. L. (Eds), Handbook of Workplace Spirituality and Organizational Performance, M. E. Sharpe, Armonk New York, NY, pp. 300-313.