The Effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) on Fear of Negative Evaluation (FNE) and Social Adjustment in Female Students with Social Phobia

Document Type: Original Article


1 Department of Counseling and Educational Sciences, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran

2 Department of Psychology, Islamic Azad University of Quchan,, Iran

3 Department of Psychology, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran



 The present study aimed at determining the effect of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) on fear of negative evaluation (FNE) and social adjustment in female students with social phobia. The population of the study consisted of all female students of Mashhad Higher Education Institute of Engineers (Northeastern Iran). Thirty students were selected randomly from among those whose had high scores in the social phobia questionnaire. They responded to the FNE and social adjustment scales. The research was quasi-experimental following a pretest-posttest control group design. The experimental group received an intervention protocol, while the control group received no intervention. The data were analyzed using Univariate/Multivariate covariance analysis (ANCOVA & MANCOVA) through SPSS v.21. The findings indicated that the EMDR leads to reduced FNE (F = 35.20, p < 0.0001, ή = 0.773) and increased social adjustment (F = 41.07, p < 0.0001, ή = 0.699). Having participated in the EMDR therapy, students with social phobia reported reduced symptoms of social phobia, such as FNE and greater social adjustment. The EMDR is an effective therapeutic approach to reducing anxiety disorders, including social phobia and enhancing social adjustment.


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