The effects of ultrasound, infrasound, and electroconvulsive stimulations on anxiety-like behavior in mice

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Psychology, Borujerd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Borujerd, Iran.

2 Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Aja University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Motor Behavior, Borujerd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Borujerd, Iran


Anxiety is a prevalent mental illness worldwide with a considerable burden to health services. We tried to assess the effects of ultrasound, infrasound, and electroconvulsive stimulation on anxiety-like behavior in mice models. In total, 60 male BALB/c mice were included. Our mice were exposed to the urine of cats. Each exposure lasted for 1 hour and was repeated 3 times a day, for 30 days. Then, the mice were allocated to three groups of experimental (ultrasound, infrasound, and electroconvulsive stimulation) and one group of control animals, each including 15 mice. The experimental animals received ultra- or infrasound 0.5 hours or 1 electroconvulsive pulse, daily for 10 days. We used a mouse elevated plus maze (EPM) to compare anxiety responses between the experimental and control groups. The outcome measures, percentage of entries to and percentage of time spent on the open arms, were measured. There was a significant effect of the intervention on the percentage of entries into as well as the time spent on the open arms (MANOVA, p = 0.001). Separate analyses confirmed significant treatment effects on the outcomes (ANOVA, both p = 0.001). Post-hoc tests revealed that ultrasound increased the percentage of entries into and time spent on the open arms. Infrasound did not affect the outcome compared with the no-treatment control. The mice with electroconvulsive stimulation entered the open arms less than controls.Ultrasound stimulations are capable of decreasing anxiety. We did not find any significant anxiolytic effect for infrasound. Our results were not compatible with the application of electroconvulsive therapy for the treatment of anxiety.


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